Grammar dalam Bahasa Inggris

update terakhir:

Selamat datang di artikel kesebelas belajar bahasa inggris, pada artikel ini kalian akan mempelajari tentang grammar secara umum. Untuk teman-teman yang sebelum membaca artikel utama belajar bahasa inggris dari blog ini tentang mind map bahasa inggris sebaiknya dibaca terlebih dahulu karena artikel tersebut merupakan panduan dasar untuk ke artikel lainnya. Di dalam artikel tersebut juga terdapat prinsip dasar penyusunan materi bahasa inggris pada blog ini.

Jika kalian sudah membaca artikel utama tersebut maka kita bisa masuk ke pembahasan!

micropedia belajar bahasa inggris
Gambar 1. Micropedia belajar bahasa inggris

Grammar atau tata bahasa adalah pengetahuan dasar yang harus dipelajari ketika kalian ingin mempelajari bahasa lain selain bahasa ibu kalian. Memang benar bahwasannya kita tidak pernah belajar grammar sama sekali dalam mempelajari bahasa ibu kita, seolah-olah grammar dapat dikuasai secara alami dan otomatis. Bahkan ada juga orang yang mempelajari bahasa keduanya tanpa belajar grammar sama sekali, karena sudah immerse dengan lingkungan sekitarnya yang berbahasa inggris. Agar modelnya rapih, saya susun kategorinya sebagai berikut:

  1. orang yang mempelajari bahasa keduanya tanpa grammar dan tidak tinggal dilingkungan yang berbahasa inggris
  2. orang yang mempelajari bahasa keduanya dengan grammar dan tidak tinggal dilingkungan yang berbahasa inggris
  3. orang yang mempelajari bahasa keduanya tanpa grammar dan tinggal dilingkungan yang berbahasa inggris
  4. orang yang mempelajari bahasa keduanya dengan grammar dan tinggal dilingkungan yang berbahasa inggris

Saya membuat kategori di atas berdasarkan urutan seberapa efektifnya belajar bahasa inggris, yang paling tidak efektif adalah kasus nomor 1 dan yang paling efektif adalah kasus nomor 4. Dari pemodelan tersebut harusnya sudah jelas mengenai perdebatan yang terjadi selama ini, 'grammar itu penting atau tidak?' jawabannya adalah tidak penting untuk bahasa ibu dan penting untuk bahasa kedua dan seterusnya. Grammar tiap bahasa itu bersifat unik dan berbeda, jadi harus dipelajari. Keefektifan belajarnya pun bukan hanya diukur dari skill speakingnya saja, tetapi dari 4 komponen utama skills belajar bahasa, yaitu listening (input), reading (input), writing (output), dan speaking (output). Belajar grammarnya pun tidak harus terlalu mendalam seperti ahli bahasa atau linguis, setidaknya kita harus mengenal dasar-dasar penggunaan kalimat sederhana. Oleh karena itu, kita tidak akan terlalu belajar mendalam tentang grammar pada blog ini, tetapi hanya belajar kulitnya saja.

Format pembacaan tabel di bawah memang sedikit random per kategori, jadi dinalar sendiri saja ya. Silahkan dibaca tabelnya:

Grammar
Luke is a ___ boy
A. five years old
B. five-year-old
C. five years-old
___ jacket is this?
A. Who's
B. Whose
C. Of who
I've lived here ___ 2 years
A. for
B. since
C. from
If I ___ it, I would have told you
A. had known
B. would know
C. know
Hurry! Get ___ the bus, we're going to be late!
A. in
B. inside
C. on
We're very different ___ each other
A. from
B. than
C. of
Remind me ___ again
A. of checking
B. to check
C. checking
I wish I ___ do this
A. didn't have to
B. hadn't to do
C. don't have
___ it was snowing, schools were open
A. Despite
B. Although
C. In spite of
They suggested ___ it
A. to try
B. of trying
C. trying
She's married ___ a dentist
A. with
B. to
C. together
When I ___, I will call you
A. arrive
B. will arrive
C. am arrived
Jack's really good ___ dancing
A. in
B. at
C. with
It doesn't cost much, it's very ___
A. inexpensive
B. nonexpensive
C. disexpensive
Not only ___ right, I also won!
A. I was
B. I am
C. was I
Call me when you arrive ___ the station
A. to
B. at
C. in
 
Between ⟶ > 2 things (distinct = berbeda)
The chair is between the bed and the painting
I can't choose between the red, the green and the purple shirt
Among ⟶ > 3 things (indistinct = tidak bisa dibedakan)
The house was among the trees
Amongst ⟶ dated (kuno) and formal
___ but the bravest man amongst us is afraid of himself
 
At times
• at 5
• at noon
• at midnight
• at night
• in the night refers to one night in particular, 'at night' is in general
• at noon
• at midday = tengah hari / pagi menjelang siang
• at midnight = tengah malam
• at dawn = subuh
• at dusk = sore
• at twilight = sebelum matahari terbenam
• at sunset = matahari terbenam
• at sunrise = matahari terbit
specific place, hour
• She arrived at {the airport / the train station / her friend's house}
• They arrived at 6:00'
On days, date
• on Monday
• on July 13th
• on Christmas Day
• at Christmas
• She arrived on {Monday / the 4th of May}
In • centuries ⟶ in the 21st century
• decades ⟶ in the 90's
• years ⟶ in 1989
• months ⟶ in June
• seasons ⟶ in summer
• She arrived in {Paris/France}
• She arrived in {July/summer/1973}
• in the morning
• in the afternoon
• in the evening
• in the night (one night in particular)
• at night (any night in general)
Get On (you can stand up) Get In (you can't stand)
⟶ I'm on {a/an} ___ ⟶ I'm in {a/an} ___
⟶ I get off the ___ ⟶ I get out of ___
bus/subway car
boat/ship taxi
plane lorry (truck)
train helicopter
bicycle van
 
On Time ⟶ punctually (tepat waktu), on schedule
The train arrived on time
In Time ⟶ early enough (cukup awal / kepagian), eventually (nantinya, pada akhirnya)
We're still in time to get there
We're still just in time to get there (very close to being late but it still wasn't)
In time you'll see
 
In ⟶ something definite (state of being / keadaan)
You are in trouble
⟶ substitute for into
They all got in the boat
⟶ inclusion (penyertaan/pencantuman)
She is in science class
Within ⟶ estimate
I'll get back to you within a few days
⟶ boundaries
You can't have dogs within the fenced area
 
on ⟶ contact
The bird is on the fence (cuz the bird contact the fence)
over ⟶ no contact, movement
The bird is flying over the fence
above ⟶ no contact, no movement
The bee is hovering above the fence
Rules of the Date and How to Pronun. It
before the year 2000 ⟶ divided into 2 parts
1984 (nineteen eighty-four)
years ending in 00 ⟶ hundred(s)
1500 (fifteen hundred)
the 1500s (the fifteen hundreds) [century case]
after the year 2000 ⟶ as numbers
2007 (two thousand (and) seven)
after the year 2010 ⟶ as numbers / in 2 parts
2021 (two thousand (and) twenty-one)
2021 (twenty twenty-one)
0 in the middle ⟶ pronun. 'o'
1604 (sixteen o four)
Date
17/03/1804 The seventeenth of March eighteen o four
03/10/2014 The third of October two thousand and fourteen
21/04/2021 The twenty first of April two thousand and twenty one
Numbers
4900 for thousand nine hundred
12,073 twelve thousand and seventy three
569,045 five hundred and sixty nine thousand and forty five
2,000,455 two million four hundred and fifty five
212,302,111 two hundred and twelve million.. three hundred and two thousand.. one hundred and eleven
Percentage Rate
Never 0%
Hardly ever 10%
Rarely 20%
Seldom 30%
Occasionally 40%
Sometimes 50%
Often 60%
Frequently 70%
Generally 80%
Usually 90%
Always 100%
 
While ⟶ conjunction, noun, verb
Whilst ⟶ conjunction [dated (kuno) and formal]
They made breakfast {while/whilst} I was sleeping
We talked for a {while/whilst}
I {whiled/whilst} away the evening doing puzzles = menghabiskan
 
he ⟶ him
she ⟶ her
they ⟶ them
qquad =
who ⟶ whom
⟶ after preposition {to/with/for} always use whom
A: That's the boy with whom I share an apartment (after preposition)
B: I share an apartment with him
A: Whom do you believe?
B: I believe her (not she)
That's the boy who called me [object] yesterday. He called me
That's the boy whom I [subject] saw yesterday. I saw him
note:
• 'whom' is mainly used in formal settings or written texts
• yg warna magenta tidak ada hubungannya dengan he/she/they
 
If I were ⟶ hypothetical (wish, imagination, unreal)
If I were a boy
If I was ⟶ in the past
If I was rude to you, I apologize
Their ; They're ; There (all sound the same)
Their ⟶ belonging to them
I love their style
There ⟶ not here
I'll see you there
They're They're my friends
Mnemonic ⟶ They're certain that their friends will be there
 
Alright (informal use) All right (formal texts)
Can you speak English? Is English a language you are able to speak?
Can you speak in English? Could you tell me that in English? [those things]
 
every day ⟶ each day / every single day
I wake up early every day
everyday ⟶ (adj.) daily, common
This is my everyday workout routine
 
May ⟶ permission
May is generally used in formal situations
A: May I go to the bathroom?
Can ⟶ ability
Can is used for permission in everyday English
A: Can I go to the bathroom?
B: I don't know. Can you? (mampu ga ke bathroom?)
A: Can you sing?
A: Can I borrow your pen?
A: Can I ask you something?
 
May ⟶ asking for permission (formal)
Might ⟶ asking for permission (very formal); possible present or future situations
A: Might I add something?
B: Yes, you may
It may rain (60%)
It might rain (40%)
Conditional sentences If I had practiced more, I might have won
Giving permission Yes, you might (incorrect)
Yes, you may (correct)
No, you may not (correct)
American English
I can DO it the stress in DO
I CAN'T do it the stress in CAN'T
 
Daily use ⟶ person / people
formal / legal context ⟶ persons = a specific number of individuals
you may find it in an older book and in an elevator!
 
A: Hey, would you mind closing the window?
B: Oh yeah, sure!
A: so you do mind? = jadi kamu keberatan?
B: What?
A: Do you mind closing the window?
B: Um... no?
we can answer it based on ⟶ its structure (more formal)
no, not at all
I don't mind doing that thing for you. It's okay
⟶ its function (more colloquial)
sure, I'll open the window
 
US ⟶ singular is more common
family, team, group, company, committee
except for 'police' is always plural
UK ⟶ plural is more common
It also depends on what you're emphasizing (the group or the individual?)
In conclusion My family is ___ (correct)
My family are ___ (correct)
 
Old-{er/est} ⟶ people and things
Eld-{er/est} ⟶ people, reverence (menghormati), as a noun
Pliny the Elder (filsuf)
Respect your elders
 
I don't really like it aku suka, tapi gasuka-suka banget = biasa aja
I really don't like it aku sangat tidak suka
 
Physical Distance ⟶ further/farther
The beach is {further/farther} than I imagined
I drove {further/farther} North
⟶ near/close
The bank is {near/close}
The bank is near my house
The bank is close to my house
Figurative Distance (ideas or imaginary objects) ⟶ further
We decided to take a step further in our relationship
⟶ close
My sister and I are close = we have a good relationship
 
but ⟶ artinya 'kecuali' pada sentence ini
I wanna meet anybody but you
⟶ artinya 'tetapi' jika setelahnya adalah subject dan verb
You don't wanna call me, but you wanna meet me right?
 
Kalimat harapan yg tidak mungkin terjadi I wish you were here
Kalimat harapan yg mungkin terjadi ⟶ hope + will + V1
I hope I will meet you again
 
Incident ⟶ an unpleasant / unusual event / peristiwa yg kadang disengaja
Accident ⟶ an unfortunate event that happens by chance or involuntarily = peristiwa yg kurang beruntung yg terjadi karena kebetulan atau tidak sengaja
a car crash
In conclusion ⟶ all accidents are incidents [context: an unpleasant / unusual event]
 
Keep + gerund atau verb-ing
• Keep smiling
• Keep cleaning
• Keep going
Stay + adjective
• Stay cool
• Stay humble
• Stay healthy
 
[Gerund] verb + ing melakukan, menggunakan
[Gerund] the + verb + ing perlakuan, penggunaan
whereas ⟶ on the other hand
It is a small book whereas the other one is a big one
while ⟶ at the same time
We continued to play cricket while It rained
different ⟶ adjective (berbeda)
We are different
difference ⟶ noun (perbedaan)
The difference between ___
 
Anytime (adverb) ⟶ whenever
Call me {anytime/whenever} you want
A: Thank you!
B: Anytime!
Any time ⟶ after 'at', amount of time
You can call me at any time
Do you have any time talk today?
 
Do you know about him? ⟶ In English we do not have a DOUBLE negative
I don't have nothing to eat (incorrect)
not ___ nothing (incorrect)
not ___ {anything/anybody/anywhere} (correct)
I don't know nothing about him (incorrect)
I know nothing about him (correct)
I don't know anything about him (correct)
*nothing = untuk kalimat positif
*anything/anybody/anywhere = untuk kalimat negatif
 
Fix ⟶ memperbaiki dengan memperbagus
You have to fix everything I did wrong
Repair ⟶ memperbaiki dengan cara memasang kembali
My brother is repairing your car
 
Alone ⟶ there's no one around you (physically)
Lonely ⟶ a feeling
On my own / By myself ⟶ without anyone's help or supervision
So you can be alone and feel lonely
or you can feel lonely without actually being alone
 
The journey was quick{because/as/for the reason that} the road was clear
{Since/due to the fact that} the road was clear, the journey was quick
 
A: How many people live in the UK?
B: I think it's about 60 millions (incorrect)
A: I think you mean 60 milion
{hundred/thousand/million} + a number ⟶ without 's'
2 hundred
1 thousand
1 million
if there is no number ⟶ you can add the 's'
Thousands of people visit London every year
 
Beside ⟶ next to (di sebelah), close to (dekat)
I keep a gun beside my bed
Besides ⟶ apart from (selain)
Besides Anna, who wants to go?
 
I am in the hospital ⟶ I am hospitalized (dirawat di RS) = karena IN.. INSIDE
I am at the hospital ⟶ I am visiting someone who has been hospitalized
 
apart ⟶ separately
I'm sitting apart from my friends
a part ⟶ a piece of something (sepotong sesuatu)
She was so proud to be a part of our team
 
Can you take me a picture (incorrect) Can you take my picture? (correct)
⟶ Take = 1 objek Can you take the picture of me? (correct)
Can you take the picture for me? (correct)

Grammar pada tabel di atas memang sengaja tidak terlalu mendalam dan banyak seperti di buku-buku, saya hanya mau menunjukkan pada tabel tersebut bahwa grammar itu cukup penting dipelajari, tetapi tidak usah terlalu serius mempelajarinya, cukup kulitnya saja (pengecualian untuk kalian yang ingin mengajar atau menjadi ahli bahasa).

Silahkan tinggalkan komentar di bawah jika terdapat kesalahan penulisan, pemaknaan, atau yang lainnya. Jangan lupa juga untuk dishare ke teman kalian yang sedang belajar bhs inggris ya!

Kalian juga dapat berkontribusi untuk menambahkan materi pada blog ini dengan cara mengkurasi materi bahasa inggris yang kalian punya dan mencocokannya ke dalam format tabel yang ingin kalian tambahkan. Kemudian kalian dapat mengirimkan materi tersebut ke email saya di ambizius6@gmail.com dalam bentuk file excel. Kredit akan saya berikan kepada sang kontributor materi sebagai bentuk apresiasi. Link berikut ini adalah contoh dari format file kontribusi tersebut.

Kalian dapat melacak perubahan yang terjadi pada tabel di atas dengan cara melihat riwayat pembaruannya pada tabel di bawah ini, hal ini dilakukan dalam upaya untuk mengantisipasi apabila terdapat kesalahan materi pada tabel di atas atau penambahan materi. Berikut ini adalah tabelnya:

Tanggal Riwayat Pembaruan
12 April 2022 Menambahkan kata-kata pada tabel yang berakhir pada kategori 'Can you take me a picture'

Cukup sekian dan terima kasih, semangat belajarnya kawan! Sampai jumpa di artikel selanjutnya mengenai phrasal verbs dalam bahasa inggris ...

Hi, salam kenal! Link ini mengenai saya.
email: ambizius6@gmail.com
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